Creatine Research

Micronised Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine Monohydrate is a naturally occurring compound found in small amounts in certain foods and synthesised by the body. It plays a crucial role in energy production, particularly during high-intensity, short-duration activities like weightlifting and sprinting.
Creatine is stored in the muscles as creatine phosphate, which quickly regenerates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the primary energy carrier in cells. During intense exercise, creatine phosphate donates its phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate), converting it back to ATP. This process rapidly replenishes ATP, providing a quick and efficient energy source for muscle contractions.
By increasing the cellular pool of phosphocreatine, creatine supplementation accelerates the recycling of ADP into ATP, enhancing energy availability and promoting improvements in strength and power output.
Micronised Creatine Monohydrate is creatine that has been processed into smaller particles to improve its solubility and absorption. This means it mixes more easily with liquids and is more readily absorbed by the body, enhancing its effectiveness.

Performance And Strength

Creatine enhances athletic performance by providing a quick and efficient source of energy during high-intensity workouts. It improves the body's ability to rapidly produce ATP, the primary energy currency of cells, enabling sustained high-intensity efforts. Scientific studies have shown that creatine supplementation can lead to significant improvements in performance during activities like sprinting, weightlifting, and other explosive movements. Regular creatine supplementation increases muscle strength and endurance, allowing for longer and more intense training sessions. By enhancing the availability of ATP, creatine helps muscles work harder and recover faster. It boosts muscle capacity and power output, aiding in explosive movements and lifts. Creatine supports the rapid regeneration of ATP, providing muscles with the energy needed for short, intense bursts of activity.

Additionally, creatine promotes the development of lean body mass, contributing to a more defined and toned physique. It helps increase muscle volume by drawing water into muscle cells and supporting protein synthesis. Furthermore, creatine reduces post-workout fatigue, helping you recover faster and maintain consistency in your training routine. By minimising muscle cell damage and inflammation, it supports quicker recovery times.

Analysing 22 studies, a review found that creatine supplementation resulted in an average 8% greater increase in muscle strength compared to a placebo (20% vs. 12%) and a 14% greater increase in weightlifting performance (26% vs. 12%). Improvements in bench press 1RM ranged from 3% to 45%, and weightlifting performance improvements ranged from 16% to 43%. Overall, the review concludes that creatine supplementation enhances muscle strength and weightlifting performance more effectively than resistance training alone, though individual responses vary significantly.

1. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. DOI:10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0822:eocsar>;2
Eric S Rawson 1, Jeff S Volek.


Creatine improves cellular energy production, ensuring your muscles have the fuel they need for optimal performance and recovery. By increasing the overall pool of cellular phosphocreatine, creatine accelerates the recycling of ADP into ATP, quickly replenishing energy stores.


Creatine enhances cognitive performance by increasing the energy supply to brain cells, promoting mental focus, clarity, and decision-making during workouts and daily activities. It helps reduce mental fatigue, keeping you sharp and focused throughout your training sessions and maintaining cognitive performance even under stress. Additionally, creatine protects brain function and overall cognitive health. Studies have shown that creatine supplementation can have neuroprotective effects, safeguarding brain cells from damage and supporting long-term cognitive well-being.

A cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial involved daily supplementation of 5 g for 6 weeks, testing 123 participants (half vegetarians, half omnivores) on cognitive tasks. Results showed a small beneficial effect on the Backward Digit Span test (p = 0.064) but not on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (p = 0.327), with no improvement in exploratory tasks. Side effects were more common with creatine than placebo (p = 0.002). Overall, creatine has a beneficial cognitive effect.

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we hypothesised that 5 g/day of oral creatine for six weeks would improve intelligence and working memory in 45 young adult vegetarians. Results showed a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), highlighting creatine's impact on brain energy capacity and performance.

1. The effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance - a randomised controlled study. doi: 10.1186/s12916-023-03146-5.
Julia Fabienne Sandkühler, Xenia Kersting , Annika Faust, Eva Kathrin Königs, George Altman, Ulrich Ettinger , Silke Lux , Alexandra Philipsen, Helge Müller, Jan Brauner

2. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2492
Caroline Rae 1, Alison L Digney, Sally R McEwan, Timothy C Bates